Remediating Soil & Solid Waste Compost With Natural Clinoptilolite Zeolite


The incorporation of untreated or Mg-modified natural zeolite in municipal solid waste compost has been shown to reduce heavy metal concentration of corn plants growing in the remediated soil.

A primary negative result of municipal waste composts is the contamination of soils with heavy metals. Management of the composted soil must be conducted before any land application in order to prevent heavy metal uptake by plants. Total uptake of Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, and Cd was studied in corn plants, grown in remediated soil, with and without the addition of different natural zeolite.

A greenhouse experiment tested the potential effects of composts containing natural zeolite on the distribution of heavy metals in corn plants. Natural zeolite was added to the municipal solid waste at the starting of the composting process at 5%, 10% and 15% by volume. The solid waste was processed to a size less than 60mm. The waste was mixed with zeolites at different ratios and the composting process was performed for two months. Compost was mixed every three days. 

At harvest, the heavy metals were measured in the compost and corn plants.

The application of natural zeolite in the composting process resulted in a significant reduction of heavy metals. 

The concentrations of heavy metal in root, stalk, and leaves of corn plants are shown in Fig. 3. Remarkable differences in heavy metal concentration were found among the treatments. Increasing the zeolite dosage … in applied compost significantly reduced most of the heavy metals concentrations in corn roots, stalks and leaves compared to C treatment. (Page 4)

Amount decreased of DTPA-extractable Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni and Cd in matured compost:

Natural Zeolite: 13%, 44%, 22%, 32%, 28% and 29% in comparison to zeolite-free compost. Mg modified zeolite: 14%, 47%, 25%, 36%, 43% and 36%, respectively. Mg- modified zeolite was more effective than natural zeolite, but not significantly.

Heavy metal removal from motorway stormwater using zeolite


In this study, natural and synthetic zeolites have been shown to reduce heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd in motorway stormwater. Zeolite has been investigated for its ion exchange capacity, and its ability to remove heavy metals that have been dissolved in an aqueous solution. Zeolite’s effect on motorway stormwater was assessed by calculating the percentage of metal removed through quick batch experiments. 

Natural zeolite releases sodium because of its cation exchange with heavy metals, trace sodium indicates an ion exchange process has occurred. Natural zeolite removes lead and cadmium at various pH values and shows better removal at acidic pH’s where the metal species were dominantly catatonic.  

The best way to apply natural zeolite is by using concentrated contaminated ponds. While holding the stormwater in a detention pond, apply the zeolite material in a filtered bag to enable periodic replacement of the heavy metal contained zeolite.

Reference Research Paper:


Benefits of Natural Zeolite in Anaerobic Digestion


The physical properties of zeolite are useful in various ways. Natural zeolite is a natural absorbent, which can be used for purification in digestion and wastewater. Anaerobic digestion is a series of biological processes in which microorganism break down the biodegradable absence of oxygen. Zeolite has been widely used as an ion exchanger for the removal of ammonium in anaerobic digestion.

This study tested the efficiency of clinoptilolite on improving digestion and reducing manure mineral content. One of the many ways that zeolite is beneficial is how porous it is, that enables the anaerobic reactor to retain high biomass concentrations. Higher concentrations are capable because of the increased surface area available made by using a fixed bed reactor. A big problem in anaerobic processing of wastewater is the loss of biomass in systems with high hydraulic loading rates.

The purpose of this study was to examine the uses of zeolite in the anaerobic digestion processes. According to these different characteristics, a zeolite is found to be successfully supporting anaerobic digestion. The different characteristics consist of high capacity for immobilization of microorganism, capacity for improving the ammonia ion equilibrium, and finally the possibility of reducing the ammonia and ammonium ion in-solution.


Application of Natural Zeolites in Anaerobic Digestion Processes: A Review

(Silivio Montalvo et al. 2012)

What is BioGass?

The positive effects of Zeolite used in Animal Feed

The growing demand for healthier food products has to lead to the innovation of zeolite additives in animal feed. According to recent studies, all animal feed is contaminated by more than one mycotoxin. According to Gowda, N. K. S, in his book Aflatoxins, it is estimated about 25% of the world’s livestock is affected by mycotoxins annually.

Mycotoxins cause harm to animals and humans. Recent studies on Zeolite have successfully found many great benefits as an additive in animal feed. Clinoptilolite is naturally organic, non-toxic, and absorbs odor. The use of zeolite in stored animal feed acts as an anti-clumping agent and reduces the risk of mold. Additionally, zeolite selectively captures ammonia molecules, heavy metals, toxins, and ammonia. The binding of ammonia, which reduces nitrogen excretion in feces, can lower concentrations in livestock farms and in the environment (Amon et al. 1997)

Mixing zeolite in animal feed has produced positive performance results including; metabolic utilization of nutrients and basic health improvements for broilers.

In one study of 2%, 4%, and a control group of zeolite mixed in animal feed, the 2% group had significantly higher egg weight of 64.68g. This shows that at 2% of zeolite the growth of the egg is healthier. The 4% group decreased the egg weight to 62.20g and the control group egg weight stayed at a 63.73g. (Macháček 2010).

Additionally, the study found that the 2% group decreased its feed consumption to 114g, and the control group was at a 118g. (Macháček 2010). With a lower feed consumption rate, the chicken in the 2% group increased metabolic utilization of fat, nitrogen-free extracts, starch, and gross energy compared to the control group.

Another study shows how 2% of zeolite mixed in with feed for poultry has had positive

effects of broiler growth and litter quality. (Karamanlis 2008). By adding zeolite to sawdust the broiler chicken’s quality of litter improved. Another effect of zeolite introduced to animal feed is disease prevention. A 2011 study produced positive results when using different concentrations of zeolite as a feed additive for broilers; it was able to control Salmonella at the broiler farm. (Al-Nasser 2011).

Results from a study done on protecting animal feed from pathogens showed that zeolite added to chicken feed reduced flora levels. Compared to the controlled group in the chicken body, the experiment was successful with amounts at a level of 0,5% or 1%. Another finding indicated that the additive zeolite helped with performance levels and production of organs, specifically omega 3 fatty acids.




  1. Effects of the feed additive ZeoFeed on Nutrient Metabolism and

    2 . Karamanlis_The Effect of Natural Zeolite on the Performance of Broiler Chickens 

  1.  Fendri, I., Khannous, L., Mallek, Z., Traore, A. I., Gharsallah, N., & Gdoura, R. (2012). Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens. Lipids in health and disease, 11(1), 71.
  2. Vila-Donat, P., Marín, S., Sanchis, V., & Ramos, A. J. (2018). A review of the mycotoxin adsorbing agents, with an emphasis on their multi-binding capacity, for animal feed decontamination. Food and chemical toxicology.
  3. Abas, İ., Bilal, T., Ercag, E., & Keser, O. (2011). The effect of organic acid and zeolite addition alone and in combination on the bone mineral value in broilers fed different dietary phosphorus levels. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv, 6, 678-687.
  4. Gowda, N. K. S., Swamy, H. V. L. N., & Mahajan, P. (2013). Recent advances for control, counteraction and amelioration of potential aflatoxins in animal feeds. In Aflatoxins-Recent Advances and Future Prospects. InTech.

Control of the NOSEMA DISEASE with Natural Clinoptilolite Zeolite

A curative measure for honeybees, against Nosema ceranae

The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most common of the 7–12 species of honey bee worldwide. (



Nosema ceranae

Nosema Ceranae is a microsporidian, a small, unicellular parasite. Along with Nosema apis, it causes the disease nosemosis, the most widespread of the diseases of adult honey bees. N. ceranae can remain dormant as a long-lived spore which is resistant to temperature extremes and dehydration.


This fungus has been shown to act in a synergistic fashion with diverse insecticides such as fipronil or neonicotinoids, by increasing the toxicity of pesticides for bees, leading to higher bee mortality. It may thus play an indirect role in colony collapse disorder. In addition, the interaction between fipronil and Nosema ceranae induces changes in male physiology leading to sterility (




Recent declines in honey bee populations including colony collapse syndrome, and an increasing demand for insect pollinated crops raise concerns about pollinator shortages. At the same time pesticide use and its subsequent exposure to pollinating bees has led to research suggesting that high levels of pesticides are building up in these honey bee colonies. (1)

Sub-lethal levels of pesticides may be interacting with the honey bee’s natural immune system to increase susceptibility to common pathogens. These finding are of great concern due to the high levels of pesticides found in honey bee colonies and the large amount of pesticides and their growing use. (1)

Research suggests that diet, parasites, disease and pesticides interact to have a stronger negative effect on managed bee colonies. Studies of managed bee colony wax show high levels and diversity of chemicals. Exposure to these chemicals increases susceptibility to and mortality from diseases including Nosema, a gut parasite. (1)

“The endoparasitic fungal infections of N. apis and N. ceranae adversely affect honey bee colony health, and can result in complete colony collapse.” (1)

Nosemosis type C is a disease caused by the microsporidium Nosema ceranae, a dominant and prevalent honeybee disease worldwide. Control of this disease is difficult. Fumagillin is an antimicrobial agent and has been the only widely used treatment for decades. However, fumagillin may actually exacerbate, rather than suppress the N. ceranae infection. (2)

There are many concerns about the potential use of antibiotics in the treatment of this type of disease in honey bees, due to the potential of formulating a resistance to the antibiotics, disease disassembly, possible relapses, and harmful antibiotic residues and metabolites in the honey. (2)

Control of this parasite is of great concern to beekeepers and farmers alike. For these reasons the need arises for natural remedies or antibiotic alternatives to help combat this problem.

Clinoptilolite Zeolite

The naturally occurring mineral clinoptilolite zeolite, taken as a dietary supplement, has already been proven to be a powerful antioxidant, to enhance general health and immune system conditions in humans and animals, improve the bio-efficiency of food and essential minerals, promote healing of skin damage, and may have anti-cancer & antimicrobial effects. (2)

An experiment was performed to examine the effects of adding dietary grade clinoptilolite zeolite, as a fine powder, to the development of N. ceranae in the honeybee midgut. Honeybees fed with sugar syrup supplemented with clinoptilolite had a reduced number of spores compared to the initial spore count. (2)

On average, Nosema Ceranae spore counts were reduced by up to 58% in under 40 days with just one feeding supplemented with clinoptilolite. (2)




Crop Pollination Exposes Honey Bees to Pesticides Which Alters Their Susceptibility to the Gut Pathogen Nosema ceranae


Jeffery S. Pettis, Elinor M. Lichtenberg, Michael Andree, Jennie Stitzinger, Robyn Rose, Dennis vanEngelsdorp


Zeolite clinoptilolite as a dietary supplement and remedy for honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies


Tlak Gajger1, J. Ribaric2, M. Matak1, L. Svecnjak3, Z. Kozaric1, S. Nejedli1, I.M. Smodis Skerl, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia 2Ministry of Agriculture, Zagreb, Croatia Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia 4Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Veterinarni Medicina, 60, 2015 (12): 696–705

doi: 10.17221/8584-VETMED





Insecticidal potential of zeolite (Clinoptilolite)

Since the discovery of Zeolite, its potential properties have been used in many different beneficial applications. Clinoptilolite zeolite has been studied as a foliar application and has shown success in reducing infestation by several common pests including: maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais), wheat weevil (R. dominica), cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), sawtoothed grain beetle (O. surinamensis), rice weevil (S. oryzae), polen beetle (Meligethes spp), and red flour beetle (T. Castaneum). In this study, powdered zeolite is applied as a foliar insecticide and its effects were measured.


Rice weevil on hulls of rice.

rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) (Linnaeus, 1763)
Photographer: Joseph Berger

Clinoptilolite zeolite was most successful in reducing the number of rice weevil (S. oryzae) and red flour beetle (T. Castasuem). Results after 21 days of contact with all zeolite dosages of (0.25, 0.50, 075 g/kg)  showed highest mortality rates with rice weevil (S. oryzae) at 97-100% and red flour beetle (T. Castasuem) at 94-100%. Another study showed similar results in the success of reducing the emergence of beetles in organic agriculture. Clinoptilolite zeolite was used to control pollen beetle (Meligethes spp), after two or three treatments the reduction of the beetle reached 50 to 80%. Additionally, studies showed success using zeolite as a foliar application on chickpea grains, with a 16% reduction of cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne).

In conclusion, the benefits of using natural zeolite as a foliar pest control include thermal stability, zero chemical residue, and increased pest mortality rate. As a consequence zeolite has also been recognized as safe for human consumption. Specifically, it can be used on crops and agriculture safely (FDA GRAS Listings, 2006). Additional environmental conditions have an impact on the insecticidal effect of zeolite. The insecticidal potential of zeolite, therefore, merits further study.


1. (PDF) wholepaper. ResearchGate Available at: (Accessed: 1st January 2019)